Bed Time Reading

Bedtime Reading

There are literally hundreds of peer-reviewed studies showing how important the Big 4 is for our physical and mental health.  If you fancy a spot of homework to find out more about the benefits of these micronutrients please see a selection of study references below.


  • Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
  • Altura B. M., Altura B. T. (2007) Magnesium: Forgotten Mineral in Cardiovascular Biology and Therogenesis. In: International Magnesium Symposium. New Perspectives in Magnesium Research. London: Springer-Verlag; 239-260.
  • World Health Organization (2009) Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water: Public health significance. Geneva: World Health Organization Press
  • Pao E. M., Mickle S. J. (1981) Problem nutrients in the United States. Food Technology. v35:58-79.
  • King D. E. et al. (2005) Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. Journal Of The American College Of Nutrition. Jun v24(3):166-71,%20MAGnesium,%202005.pdf
  • Bohn T. (2008) Dietary Factors Influencing Magnesium Absorption in Humans. Current Nutrition & Food Science. v4(1):53-72.
  • McCarthy J., Kumar R. (1999) Divalent Cation Metabolism: Magnesium. In: Schrier R, series editor. Atlas of Diseases of the Kidney. Volume 1. Wiley-Blackwell 4.1-4.12.
  • Seelig M., Rosanoff A. (2003) The Magnesium Factor. Avery, New York.
  • Dean C. (2007) The Magnesium Miracle. Ballantine Books, New York.
  • Lieberman S., Bruning N. (2007) The Real Vitamin & Mineral Book. Avery, New York
  • Chouinard G. et al. (1990) A pilot study of magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard®) as a mood stabilizer for rapid cycling bipolar affective disorder patients. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry v14(2):171-180.
  • Heiden A. et al. (1999) Treatment of severe mania with intravenous magnesium sulphate as a supplementary therapy. Psychiatry research Dec v89(3):239-246.
  • Birch E. E. et al. (2000) A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. Mar v42(3):174-181
  • Glomset J. A. (2006) Role of docosahexaenoic acid in neuronal plasma membranes. Sci STKE. v321
  • Litman B. J. et al. (2001) The role of docosahexaenoic acid containing phospholipids in modulating G protein-coupled signaling pathways : visual transduction. Mol. Neurosci. v16(2-3):237-242
  • O’Brien J. S., Sampson L. (1965) Fatty acid and fatty aldehyde composition of the major brain lipids in normal human gray matter, white matter, and myelin. Lipid Res. v6:545-551.
  • Salem N. Jr et al. (2001) Mechanism of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. v36(9):945-959.
  • SanGiovanni J. P., Chew E. Y. (2005) The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. v24(1):87-138.
  • Stilwell W., Wassall S. R. (2003) Docosahexaenoic acid: membrane properties of a unique fatty acid. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. v126(1):1-27.
  • Svennerholm L. (1968) Distribution and fatty acid composition of phosphoglycerides in normal human brain. Lipid Res. Sep v9(5):570-579.
  • Youdin K. A. et al. (2000) Essential fatty acids and the brain: possible health implications. J. Neurosci. Jul-Aug v18(4-5):383-399.
  • Clayton E. H. et al. (2009) Reduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder associated with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. Eur J Clin Nutr Jan v63(8):1037-1040.
  • Ross B. M., Maxwell R., Glen I. (2010) Increased breath ethane levels in medicated patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are unrelated to erythrocyte omega-3 fatty acid abundance. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry Mar v35(2):446-53
    1. Osher Y., Bersudsky Y., Belmaker R. H. (2005) Omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: report of a small open-label study. J Clin Psychiatry Jun v66(6):726-729.
    2. Noaghiul S., Hibbeln J. R. (2003) Cross-National Comparisons of Seafood Consumption and Rates of Bipolar Disorders. Am J Psychiatry Dec v160(12):2222-2227.
    3. Behzadi A. H. et al. (2009) Folic acid efficacy as an alternative drug added to sodium calproate in the treatment of acute phase of mania in bipolar disorder: a double blind randomized controlled trail Acta Psychiatr Scand Dec v120(6):441-445
    4. Dias V. V. et al. (2009) Serum homocysteine levels and cognitive functioning in euthymic bipolar patients. J Affect Disord v113(3):285-290.
    5. Osher Y. et al. (2008) Neuropsychological correlates of homocysteine levels in euthymic bipolar patients. Journal of affective disorders v105(1):229-233.
    6. Reynolds E. H. (1968) Mental effects of anticonvulsants, and folic acid metabolism. v91(2):197–214.
    7. Botez M. I., Reynolds E. H., editor (1979) Folic acid in neurology, psychiatry and internal medicine. Raven, New York
    8. Reynolds E. H. (2002) Benefits and risks of folic acid to the nervous system. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. v72(5):567–571.
    9. Shorvon S. D. et al. (1980) The neuropsychiatry of megaloblastic anaemia. Br Med J v281:1036–1042.
    10. Clarke R. et al. (1998) Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. v55(11):1449–1455.
    11. Selhub J. et al. (2000) B vitamins, homocysteine and neuro cognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr. v71(suppl):S614–S620.
    12. Snowdon D. A. et al. (2000) Serum folate and the severity of atrophy of the neocortex in Alzheimer disease: findings from the nun study. Am J Clin Nutr. v71(4):993–998.
    13. Seshadri S. et al. (2002) Plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med. v346(7):476–483.
    14. Botez M. I. et al. (1977) Folate-responsive neurological and mental disorders: report of 16 cases. Eur Neurol. v16(1-6):230–246.
    15. Reynolds E. H., Rothfeld P., Pincus J. (1973) Neurological disease associated with folate deficiency. Br Med J. v2(5863):398–400.
    16. Carney M. W. P. et al. (1990) Red cell folate concentrations in psychiatric patients. J Affect Disord. v19(3):207–213.
    17. Reynolds E. H. et al. (1970) Folate deficiency in depressive illness. Br J Psychiatry. v117(538):287–292.
    18. Bottiglieri T. et al. (2000) Homocysteine, folate, methylation and monoamine metabolism in depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. v69(2):228–232.
    19. Coppen A., Chaudhry S., Swade C. (1986) Folic acid enhances lithium prophylaxis. J Affect Disord. v10(1):9–13.
    20. Coppen A., Bailey J. (2000) Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxitine by folic acid: a randomised, placebo controlled trial. J Affect Disord. v60(2):121–130.
    21. Godfrey P. S. A. et al. (1990) Enhancement of recovery from psychiatric illness by methyl folate. v336(8712):392–395.
    22. Bottiglieri T., Reynolds E. H., Laundy M. (2000) Folate in CSF and age. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. v69(4):562.
    23. Wang H-X. et al. (2001) Vitamin B12 and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer’s disease. v56(9):1188–1194.
    24. Passeri M. et al. (1993) Oral 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in senile organic mental disorders with depression: results of a double-blind multicenter study. Aging Clin Exp Res. v5(1):63–71.
    25. Goodwin J. S., Goodwin J. M., Garry P. J. (1983) Association between nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a healthy elderly population. v249(21):2917–2921.
    26. La Rue A. et al. (1997) Nutritional status and cognitive functioning in a normally aging sample: a six year reassessment. Am J Clin Nutr. v65(1):20–29.
    27. Riggs K. M. et al. (1996) Relations of vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate and homocysteine to cognitive performance in the normative aging study. Am J Clin Nutr. v63(3):306–314.;63/3/306
    28. Wahlin T. B. R. et al. (2001) The influence of serum vitamin B12 and folate status on cognitive functioning in very old age. Biol Psychol. v56(3):247–265.
    29. Reynolds E. H., Carney M. W. P., Toone B. K. (1984) Methylation and mood. V2(8396):196–198.
    30. Bottiglieri T. et al. (1990) Cerebrospinal fluid S-adenosylmethionine in depression and dementia: effects of treatment with parenteral and oral S-adenosyl methionine. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. v53(12):1096–1098.
    31. Goggans F. (1984) A case of mania secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency. Am J Psychiatry Feb v141(2):300-301.
    32. Fafouti M. et al. (2002) Mood disorder with mixed features due to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency General hospital psychiatry Mar-Apr v24(2):106-109.
    33. Demirhan O., Tastemir D., Sertdemir Y. (2009) The expression of folate sensitive fragile sites in patients with bipolar disorder. Yonsei Med J Feb v50(1):137-141
    34. McNamara R. K. (2010) DHA Deficiency and Prefrontal Cortex Neuropathology in Recurrent Affective Disorders. The Journal of Nutrition Apr v140(4):864-868.
    35. Hamazaki K., Choi K. H., Kim H-Y. (2010) Phospholipid profile in the postmortem hippocampus of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: No changes in docosahexaenoic acid species. Journal of Psychiatric Research v44(11):688-693.
    36. Prabhakar K. R. et al. (2003) Decreased antioxidant enzymes and membrane essential polyunsaturated fatty acids in schizophrenic and bipolar mood disorder patients. Psychiatry research v121(2):109-122.
    37. Porter Phillips J. G. (1910) The Treatment of Melancholia by the Lactic Acid Bacillus. The British Journal of Psychiatry Jul v56(234):422-NP
    38. Steenbergen L. et al. (2015) A randomised controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood. Brain, Behaviour and Immunity Aug v48:258–264
    39. Ventek Rao A. et al. (2009) A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome Gut Pathogens v1(6)
    40. Bested A. C. et al. (2013) Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health. Gut Pathogens v5(3)
    41. Selhub E. M. (2014) Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health. Journal of Physiological Anthropology v33(1) 2
    42. Messaoudi M. et al. (2011) Beneficial psychological effects of a probiotic formulation in healthy human volunteers Gut Microbes Jul-Aug v2(4)256-61.